Sunflower is a valuable agricultural crop for cooking oil on an industrial scale. Silage is prepared from this culture; it goes to feed the cattle. Lack of attention to the issue of protection of crops from weeds significantly reduces crop yield, therefore, after germination, it is necessary to use herbicides
The essence of the use of herbicides after germination of sunflower
A feature of sunflower cultivation is that in the initial stage they grow slower than grass sprouts. Most often this occurs when growing hybrids of highly productive, short-growing varieties.
Weeds compete with cultivated plants, taking away moisture and nutrients from them. The growth rate of weed is significantly ahead of the growth rate of sunflowers with prolonged low temperatures.
The clogging of the fields reduces the productivity of the crop during the growing season, provokes the occurrence of fungal diseases and infections.As a rule, weed grows faster than sunflower
It is especially important that the landing first 1.5 months, before the start of mass growth of seedlings, were free from weed sprouts. When the 5th leaf is formed on the sunflower and the rows begin to close, most of the weeds will become safe.
For the destruction of weeds were invented special chemicals - herbicides.
With the modern cultivation of sunflowers, only registered, authorized preparations are used that are intended to eliminate dicotyledonous and cereal weeds. They are made before sowing or after germination.
Chemicals are classified as follows.
The drug is used in the period between sowing and seedling. Germination of sunflower seeds occurs in 1.5-2 weeks after sowing. At the beginning of growth, the level of light exposure, moisture, and nutritional value of the soil is important, at which time the level of crop yield is laid. Early weed control will thankfully affect the outcome.Pre-emergence herbicides are introduced during the period between sowing and seedling
The basic agrotechnical rule for the cultivation of sunflower is the timely use of soil resources.
Pre-emergence herbicide applied to the soil layer harrowing or produced spraying during sowing or before it. The drug inhibits the growth of weeds, destroying cellular metabolism.
You can call the proven, widely used tools:
- Harnes. Means of contact exposure. Destroys annual weeds. It is brought to shoots. Consumption 3l per 1 ha;
- Pioneer 900. The working component is acethlor. Before the appearance of sprouts, the solution is treated with soil. It quickly decomposes, succeeding in producing a positive result on the destruction of the shepherd's bag, stars, chicken millet, field thorns, chamomiles;
- Dual gold, Gezagard 50, Prometrin. Means Nitran and Treflan destroy cereal and dicotyledonous weeds, but do not affect the mustard field, a hotpot, ambrosia. These drugs work well in combination with Hezagard 50. Seeding of herbicides into the ground is carried out by cultivators.
- Dual gold
Post-emergence herbicides are also called insurance. Their destructive action consists in blocking the synthesis of amino acids in weeds.
Preparations destroy cereal, dicotyledonous weeds: flatfish, chicken millet, millet, sorghum, halinsogu small-flowered, wild radish, dope, purslane, broomrape.
In the form of release, the agent can be a concentrated emulsion or in the form of water-soluble granules.
Herbicide is sprayed on sunflower crops in the period when weed shoots reached a height 10- 12 cm, have 3-4 leaves. The tool works selectively, eliminating weeds, preventing its re-growth.
Proven means are considered Beckard 125 EC, Fyuzilad Super, Poast, Furore Super.Fyuzilad Forte
Components of drugs
They combine the active components that are part of in different variations and proportions:
- Hizalofop-P-etil. It acts selectively on weeds. The full effect gives in 7-12 days. Combined with drugs to destroy monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds. He himself effectively fights with monocotyledons.
- Tribenuron methyl. It acts selectively, especially effectively copes with broadleaf grass, poppy seeds, radishes and many different weeds. It is easily washed off during a rain, watering. Does not conflict with fungicides, insecticides. Application is as post-emergence drug.
- Metolachlor. It acts selectively, low toxicity. Pre-emergence and post-emergence drug against single dicotyledonous weeds, chamomile, purslane, galensog.
- Quisalofop-P-Tefuril. The drug is selective for dealing with annual, perennial weeds, such as wheatgrass, sorghum.
- Imametapir. Present in systemic herbicides. Selective exposure. Good and quickly cope with broomrape.
- Terbutilazine. Low toxicity to insect pollinators. Works as a contact soil herbicide. Fights with ambrosia.
The golden rules of agricultural engineering
It is clear that an important criterion for obtaining a high yield of sunflowers - integrated weed control.The main criterion of a rich harvest is a complex weed control
For competent work with herbicides, experts recommend to adhere to the following rules:
- To study the characteristics of acreage, types of weeds. Soil preparations, as a rule, are used on fields with one-year weed grass.
- To determine soil type. The concentration and duration of the drug depends on:
- granulometric composition, clay, sludge require a high content of active substances;
- pH of the soil, the lower it is, the higher the rate of decomposition of substances;
- moisture and organic levels, fertile soils require a greater amount of active ingredients;
- signs of the drug itself, the degree of solubility, the decay period.
- Right prepare the area for sowing. It should contain the minimum amount of plant residues for effective work with soil herbicides.
- View weather forecast. Long-term experience of specialists has shown that the decisive factor in the effectiveness of a soil herbicide is the binding of the drug to soil moisture or precipitation within a period of not more than 20 hours from the date of application.
- Keep an eye on quality of application, the accuracy of compliance with instructions. Air temperature should ideally be from +10 to 25 degrees, wind speed less than 4 m per second. The equipment must be in order, the sprayer adjusted.
Simple methods of mechanical tillage (harrowing, inter-row loosening) are not able to provide capital protection of crops from weeds. An alternative to herbicidal preparations has not yet been invented; they help preserve and obtain a consistently high yield of sunflowers.