Cucumber - one of the most popular crops, which is in demand among the population all year round. For planting, development and abundant fruiting of cucumbers, they need a certain microclimate, which is easiest to create and maintain in the greenhouse. Many gardeners prefer to build a greenhouse polycarbonate.
Strong, durable, easy to assemble - such designs will protect the beds from wind, cold and heavy rain, save the plants from the scorching sun, and grow vegetables in them 9 months a year.
When is it best to plant cucumbers in a greenhouse?
If there is a heating system in the greenhouse and additional lighting, it is necessary to sow the seeds in time for the end of March - beginning of April. After germination, before the formation of the first leaf, light day inside the greenhouse must be extended to 14-16 hours per dayuntil the shoots finally get stronger.Greenhouse lighting, daylight extension
In an unheated greenhouse, seedlings are planted in early May (hereafter, we will consider a specific area - the suburbs). To grow viable seedlings, we must first observe the temperature regime. The air temperature during the day should reach + 22 + 25 ° С, and at night + 16 + 20 ° С. The land should be well heated - up to + 15 ° + 18 ° С at a depth of 10 cm. It is necessary to start growing seedlings a month before planting it in a greenhouse at a permanent place. You can not give seedlings to outgrow - it depresses the root system.
The seedling is ready to be transplanted into the greenhouse, if the stem has from 3 to 4 well-formed leaves, 1-2 tendrils, the stem is strong, the root system is sufficiently developed.
You can sow the seeds immediately in the ground. In this case, the plant will not expend energy on adaptation after transplantation and is guaranteed to avoid possible damage to the roots. But this method is better to apply in regions with a warm climate or use seeds of cold-resistant varieties.Cucumber seedlings planted in the ground
Greenhouse for planting cucumbers must be properly prepared
These works begin at the end of autumn. First of all, the tops, leaves and roots left over from last year’s plants are carefully selected from the ground. Then they carry out an inspection and necessary repair of the greenhouse itself. It is disinfected to destroy pests. To do this, prepare a chlorine solution of 350-400 grams of powder, which is dissolved in 8-10 liters of water and insist 3 hours. The resulting solution is treated with the entire inner surface of the greenhouse - the frame and other available structural elements.
Above the beds at a height of about 2 m tension in the horizontal direction of the rope or install supports with cords hanging from them. In the future, a young cucumber branch having already reached 5-6 leaflets, which will have a length of about 30 cm, will need a garter. In greenhouses, a single stem plant is usually formed. Hanging a cucumber vine will significantly increase yields, greatly facilitate the care of the crop, ensure timely and fast picking of vegetables, save space.
Soil preparation for sowing
In the autumn, the soil needs to be completely changed or its upper layer is about 5 cm thick. In it, a lot of pathogens accumulate during the season. The soil is treated with a solution of copper sulfate (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water). This amount is enough for processing 20-25 square meters. m square. You can apply a solution of lime (20g to 6 liters of water) or potassium permanganate (6g to 15 liters of water).Soil preparation for sowing cucumbers
Organic and mineral fertilizers are distributed on the surface of the soil per 1 sq. M. m:
- 20-25 kg of manure;
- 30-40 g of potash fertilizer;
- 30-40 g of phosphate fertilizers.
If the acidity level of the soil is higher than 6.5 PH, 200-400 g of lime per 1 square meter are applied. m of soil. After that, you need to dig up the earth to a depth of 30 cm.
In spring, the beds are filled with a new layer of soil consisting of a mixture of:
- 5 pieces of peat;
- 3 parts of humus;
- 2 parts of turf soil.
Cucumber prefers loose soils enriched with organic matter. On 1 square. m of soil will require 10-15 kg of manure or compost, which are made 14 days before planting. At the same time on 1 square. m beds distribute:
- 2 tbsp. l wood ash;
- 2 tbsp. l superphosphate;
- 2 kg of ready-mix "Exo".
These components are spread in a uniform layer on top of the ridge, then they are buried in the ground to a depth of 12 cm.
Scheme and correct landingTwo-line strip landing scheme
Planting seedlings only at first glance is simple. In fact, there are features, given that we get the opportunity to grow cucumbers and care for them. Usually in a greenhouse with dimensions of 3x6 m, beds are arranged so as to provide convenient access to them: 90-100 cm wide, the width of the paths between them is 50 cm, and the distance between plants is from 20 to 40 cm. The following scheme is often used. In the center there is a bed of 90-100 cm wide. On both sides of it there are 40-50 cm walkways. The beds stretch along the walls 50 cm wide. Thus, we have 4 rows of plants: 2 of them on the central ridge, one row along the walls. However, such a scheme is not a dogma, it can be edited depending on specific conditions - the size of the greenhouse, its shape, ceiling height, etc.
The holes for planting seedlings are staggered.. Their depth should be sufficient for handling the plant along with an earthy clod. At the bottom of each hole poured a little mixture, including:
- humus (compost or peat) - 300-500 g;
- superphosphate - 5-10 g;
- potassium salt - 5-10 g.
The bed is spilled with warm water at the rate of 1 l per cucumber vine. Planted in the prepared well seedlings, sprinkle it with soil, and then mulched on top of peat.
Plant in the greenhouse can be seeds, and you can seedlings
Most often, gardeners first grow seedlings, and then plant them into the ground, using small containers. Using ready-made peat pots will simplify transplanting.
Seeds are prepared for sowing. They are disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate and dried on a napkin.
Sawdust scalded with boiling water and leave to cool. The bottom of the wooden box is carpeted with a layer of sawdust 3-4 cm thick. Above distribute the prepared seeds and sprinkle them with the remaining chopped wood. The box is installed in a warm place, periodically moistening sawdust. When sprouts hatch, they can be planted.
Each pot is filled with soil mixture (peat and sawdust in a ratio of 3: 1), leaving 2 cm incomplete. Then they spread sprouted seed and cover it with a layer of 1-1.5 cm above the ground. The soil should not be swampy but well moistened.Shoots can soon be planted in the ground
Air temperature for germinating seeds is + 26 + 28 ° С. In a week, the first shoots will appear. For about 20–23 days, 3-4 leaflets form at the plant.
Seed in soil seed reaches a depth of 2-4 cm. In one well put on 2-3 seeds. It is possible to make furrows on the bed with a depth of 1-1.5 cm and distribute the seeds in them, sprinkling with soil mixture from above.
How to solve problems when growing, especially care
To avoid mistakes when growing cucumbers, you need to know them "by sight". Consider the most common.
Landing rules in the greenhouse
Too high planting density will deprive the plants of the amount of light and air they need. On 1 square. m place 2-4 plants.
VentilationAvoid drafts when airing, cucumbers can not stand them
Air vents need to be opened only alternately on one side of the greenhouse. Cucumbers do not tolerate drafts. Airing is required if the temperature inside the greenhouse exceeds + 30 ° C.
Quality of planting material
Be sure to check the change, lowering them in a 5% salt solution. Empty, unsuitable seeds will float to the surface. Correct copies will sink to the bottom.
Lack of power
Drying, yellowing leaves, falling away of the ovary, cessation of development ... We add mineral fertilizers that stimulate the growth of culture.
Wrong watering, insufficient or frequent
The lack or excess of moisture will affect the yield reduction. Before flowering, cucumbers are watered abundantly at room temperature. During flowering, watering is halved. When the ovary appeared, watering is resumed in the same amount. When cucumbers are fruited, the ground should be constantly moist.
Plants wither during the day
The reason is low humidity. It is necessary to irrigate the soil plentifully and install water tanks without closing them with lids.
Crooked fruitDrying the soil when growing cucumbers in the greenhouse
This is due to too high air temperature, insufficient or irregular watering, lack of food. If the cucumbers are pear-shaped, then potassium sulfate (1 tbsp per 10 liters of water) should be added as a top dressing. Cucumbers are like carrots - the plant lacks nitrogen. Pour it with a diluted mullein (1:10), bird droppings (1:20) with urea (1 tsp per 10 liters of water).
Agricultural jobs are physical, cyclical, and seem endless. Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate minimizes plant care, and makes work a pleasure: you can always build fresh cucumbers and family business on the table.